Kamis, 28 Agustus 2014

mummunan fahimta

Dalilai na sadarwa ne, a cikin bayanin ka'idar da m da kuma lissafi Claude Kuma Shannon da sociologist Warren Weaver, (ilmin lissafi The Theory of Communication, Urban: The University of Illinois Press, 1949) da shida abubuwa da shiga a cikin baza da wani sako ko bayani. Su ne: source, watsawa, sigina, noises, tana karɓar kuma adressee. Wannan makirci nan da nan aka mika tare da more abubuwa: emitter, code, saƙo, channel, redundancy, emitted sigina, karbi siginar, halin da ake ciki da kuma mahallin. Shannon ne a lura da cuatificables al'amurran da suka kan aiwatar, alhãli kuwa Warren Weaver kumbura gabas makirci a lokacin da nuna cewa sadarwa matsaloli za a iya bincikar ayyukan da uku matakan: m, na ginin jumla (kira da ma'anar da kuma fassarar saƙon) da kuma pragmatic (a kan sakamakon da sadarwa a cikin hali na mutane.

   Daga baya, Californian bincike na High School Bar soma mai m matsayi game da wannan model, wanda ya dauki ba iya hada kan duniya hadaddun daga cikin mutum sadarwa, a tsari cika da interactions. Watzlawick, Jackson da Beavin bayyana a 1967 biyar axioms daga cikin mutum sadarwa, da wanda muke nanata:

1) Yana da wuya ba don sadarwa. A cikin 'yan Adam hulda, duk hali na da darajar da sako. Kamar yadda noconducta ba ya zama, muna ko da yaushe sadarwa.
2) Dukkan sadarwa yana da abun ciki matakin (abin da muke ce) da kuma wani da zumunci matakin (ga wanda kuma yadda mu ce da shi). Mu ba kawai ka ruwaito data, kuma mun kafa aboki tare da mu interlocutor.
3) da mutanen amfani sosai da sadarwa digital (bangaren ilimin harsuna alamomin da / ko aka rubuta) kamar analogical daya (nonverbal harshen).
A dalilai ko abubuwa da shiga a cikin sadarwa ne, fiye ko žasa, da wadannan su:

A source shi ne bayani ko abun ciki a babban ba tare da codifying ga ana ruwaito a cikin sakon. Alal misali, yanayin zafi na weather sakon.
A emitter shi ne kashi cewa daukan kuma elaborates da source a cewar wani code to aika da sako sun bada haske ta wajen guda daya. Mutumin daga cikin lokaci, misali.
A code shi ne sa na alamu da dokoki na hade da irin wannan hidima to aika da wani bayani, ko source a cewar wani comprehensible ko decodable m tsarin domin emitter da karɓa. Alal misali, tsarin ji na yanayin zafi da muke yi tallafi a wani weather sakon: centigrade, Réaumur sikelin, Fahrenheit ... ko kuma harshen da ake amfani da su a wani weather sako: da Spanish, da Turanci ...
Saƙon shi ne bayanin da source riga sun bada haske da kuma kafa ta wurin code: yanayin sako kamar yadda bar emitted.
A emitted sigina ne tsanani daga cikin baza sau daya ya fita daga emitter, ko da yaushe mafi tsanani da kasa modified ko dun su hargitsa hujjar fiye da samu siginar.

The channel ne talakawan likita, ta hanyar matsayin sakon da aka ruwaito: m tsarin, iska, sama, ruwa ...

A amo shi ne duk rabi, qwaqwalwa ne qwarai likita ko, wanda wata hasara ko murdiya a cikin content haddasawa, ko kuma siffofin da saƙo: opacity daga cikin channel, rauni daga cikin sigina, nisa, gajiya daga cikin emitter, mummunan fahimta, ko mallaka na code, shubuha, wani nauyi, janyewar hankali, hauka, Nukurar sauransu ...
A redundancy shi ne maimaita maimaitawa bayanai da aka yi a cikin sakon domin cewa, gyare-gyare, hargitsi da kuma asarar da bayanin da sa amo ba sa da wani jirgin da kyau kwarai bayani.
A mahallin shi ne sanin jerin lingüísticas yanayi (na baya saƙonni zuwa saƙon, dole sanin presuppositions da bayanai ga intelección da sakon) cewa shi ne suna da sako ga iya iya gane daidai.

A halin da ake ciki ne ta jiki, wucin gadi da kuma sarari frame, na extralinguistic yanayi, inda sadarwa tsari ne ɓullo da, da kuma cewa wani lokaci yana da muhimmanci a iya fassara da sako daidai.
Da tara ita ce, to da saƙon ke qaddara, sai dai cewa dole ba shi da ya zama kashi cewa deciphers da shi.
The tana karɓar shi ne wanda ya karɓa da kuma deciphers zuwa saƙon codified da emitter yin amfani da wannan code sai aka dogara idan watsi manufa.

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